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Chess has a long and legendary history. The game has changed quite a bit from its earliest forms in India. The modern repetition we enjoy today wasn’t knowing until the 16th century. There were no clocks, and the pieces were not ordered until the 19th century.
The official world championship title come into existence by the late 19th century. Presently after the first big tournaments were held and various styles of play had begun to fully develop. Although the first book on openings publish as early as 1843, theory as we know it didn’t truly emerge until the early/mid 20th century. Computer engines and databases didn’t come into play until the very late 20th century.
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Chess, as we know it today, was born out of the Indian game chaturanga before the 600s AD. The game spread throughout Asia and Europe over the coming centuries, and eventually, evolve into what we know as chess around the 16th century. One of the first masters of the game was a Spanish priest name, Ruy Lopez. Although he didn’t discover the opening name after him, he analyzes it in a book he publishes in 1561. Chess theory was so ignorant back then that Lopez promotes the strategy of playing with the sun in your opponent’s eyes…!
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The following rules are the rules used for “over the board” (OTB) games. The FIDE Laws of Chess describe them. The FIDE Laws of Chess describe the rules for Regular chess, Rapid chess, Blitz chess, and guidelines for Chess960. For standard chess, the players must record the moves. Which is arbitrary in Rapid chess and Blitz Chess. Some rules are specifically adjusted for disabled players. As the rules cover OTB play. They cannot be directly applied to computer chess or online chess, play on a computer device. The rules for communication chess are described by the ICCF.
MOVING THE PIECES:-
The movement of pieces is to be done with one hand. Once the hand is taken off a piece after moving it. The move cannot withdraw unless the move is illegal. As for the touch-move rule. An arbiter who recognizes a contravention of this rule must happen instantly. A player must claim a contravention of the rule instantly before making a move, or lose the right to claim.
When castling, a player should first move the king with one hand and then move the rook with the same hand.
In the case of pawn promotion, if a player releases the pawn on the eighth rank, the player must promote the pawn. After the pawn move, the player may touch any piece not on the board and the promotion not finalize until the new piece release on the promotion square.
In the serious play, if a player having the move touches a piece as if having the intention of moving it. Then the player must move it if it can legally move. So long as the hand has not left the piece on a new square, any legal move can make with the piece. If a player touches one of the opponent’s pieces then that piece must capture if there is a legal move that does so. If none of the touch pieces can move or capture there is no penalty. An arbiter who observes a violation of this rule must intervene immediately. A player must claim a violation of the rule immediately before making a move, or lose the right to claim.
When castling, the king must be the first piece touched. If the player touches the king and a rook, the player must castle with that rook if it is legal to do so. If the player completes a two-square king move without touching a rook. The player must move the correct rook accordingly if castling in that direction is legal. If a player starts to castle illegally another legal king move must make if possible, including castling with the other rook.
If a player moves a pawn to its eighth rank, it cannot substitute for a different move of the pawn when the player has to stop touching it. However, the movie is not complete until the promote piece release on that square.
If a player wishes to touch a piece to adjust its position on a square. The player must first alert the opponent of this intention by saying “J’adoube or I adjust”. Once the game has started, only the player with the move may touch the pieces on the board.
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Each square of the chessboard is identified with a unique pair of a letter and a number. The vertical files are label a through h, from white’s left to white’s right. Similarly, the horizontal ranks are numbers from 1 to 8, starting from the one nearest White’s side of the board. Each square of the board, then, is uniquely identified by its letter and rank number. The white king, for example, starts the game on square e1. The black knight on b8 can move to a6 or c6.
In formal competition, each player is obliged to record each move as it plays in a chess notation to settle disputes about the illegal position, overstepping time control, and making claims of draws by the fifty-move rule or repetition of position. Algebraic chess notation is the acceptable standard for recording games today. There are other systems such as ICCF numeric notation for international correspondence chess and the obsolete descriptive chess notation. The current rule is that a move must make on the board before it is written on paper or record with an electronic device.
Both players should indicate offers of a draw by writing “=” at that move on their score sheets. Notations about the time on the clocks can make. A player with less than five minutes left to complete all the remaining moves is not required to record the moves. The score sheet must make available to the arbiter at all times. A player may respond to an opponent’s move before writing it down.
An illegal move is a piece not moving according to its possible defined movements, moving according to its possible movements but exposing its king o check or leaving the own king in check. Some movements contain requirements for the position to be legal. Further pressing the clock without making a move and making a move with two hands consider and penalize as if an illegal move.
A player who makes an illegal move must retract that move and make a legal move. That move must make with the same piece if possible. Because the touch-move rule applies. If the illegal move was an attempt to castle, the touch-move rule applies to the king but not to the rock. If the mistaken notice, the game should restart from the position in which the error occurred. The arbiter should adjust the time on the clock according to the best evidence. Some regional organizations have different rules.
A player may correct an illegal move if the player has not pressed the clock. If a player has pressed the clock, the illegal move may start with the arbiter intervening or by the opponent claiming the illegal move. In standard chess, the illegal move must claim before the end of the game. In the most use form of Rapid chess and Blitz chess, if the arbiter does not intervene and the opponent moves, the illegal move accepts and without penalty.
According to the FIDE Laws of Chess, the first start complete illegal move results in a time penalty. The time penalty consists of giving the opponent two minutes extra time in standard and rapid chess, one minute extra time in Blitz. The second start complete illegal move by the same player results in the loss of the game. Unless the position is such that the opponent can’t win by any series of legal moves in which case the game is drawn. A move is complete when it has been made and the player presses the clock.
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For standard chess and the most use form of Rapid and Blitz chess, there are the following rules. If it discover during the game that the starting position was incorrect. The game restart. If it discovers during the game that the board is oriented incorrectly. The game continues with the pieces transferred to a correctly oriented board. If the game starts with colors revers. The game restart if less than 10 moves have been made by both players. otherwise, the game continues. If the clock setting finds to be incorrect during the game, it is correct according to best judgment. Some regional organizations have different rules.
If a player knocks over pieces, it is the same player’s responsibility to restore them to their correct position, on that player’s time. If it discovers that an illegal move has been made, or that pieces have been displaced. The game restores the position before the irregularity. If that position cannot determine, the game restores to the last known correct position.
An illegal position is a position that cannot reach by any series of legal moves.
Players may not use any notes, outside sources of information, or advice from other people. Analysis on another board not permit. Scoresheets are to record objective facts about the game only, such as time on the clock or draw offers. Players may not leave the competition area without the permission of the arbiter.
High standards of etiquette and ethics expect. Players should shake hands before and after the game. Generally, a player should not speak during the game, except to offer a draw, resign, or call attention to an irregularity. An announcement of “check” commonly make in informal games but not recommend in officially sanction games. A player may not distract or annoy another player by any means, including repeatedly offering a draw.
Due to increasing concerns about the use of chess engines and outside communication, mobile phone usage ban. The first forfeit by a high-profile player, for phone ringing during play, occurs in 2003. In 2014 FIDE extend this to ban all mobile phones from the playing area during chess competitions, under penalty of forfeiture of the game or even expulsion from the tournament. The rules allow for less rigid enforcement in minor events.
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HOW TO PLAT CHESS…?
STEP 1: (Setup, Turns, and Taking Pieces)
The board is set up as shown. There should always be a white square at that closest right-hand side for both players. Remember that the queen must be on a square that matches her color.
White always moves first, and players alternate turns. Players can only move one piece at a time, except when castling.
Players take pieces when they encounter an opponent in their movement path. Only pawns take differently than they move. Players cannot take or move through their pieces.
STEP 2: (Pawn Movement)
Pawns only move forward. On the first move, a pawn can move one or two spaces, every subsequent move can only be one space. Pawns move diagonally to take opponents.
If a pawn reaches the opposite side of the board, it is promoted to a higher piece. There is no limit to how many pawns can be promoted.
STEP 3: (Rook)
Rooks move in a continuous line forwards, backward and side-to-side.
STEP 4: (Knight)
Knights are the only pieces that “jump” off the board. Unlike other pieces, they are not blocked if there are pieces between them and their destination square.
To make it easier to remember how a knight moves think of an L. Two spaces in a direction forward, backward or side-to-side, and one space at a right turn.
STEP 5: (Bishop)
Bishops move in continuous diagonal lines in any direction.
STEP 6: (Queen)
The queen moves in continuous diagonal and straight lines. Forward, backward and side-to-side.
STEP 7: (King)
The king can move in any direction, one square at a time.
A king cannot move to a square that is under attack by the opponent.
STEP 8: (Special Move: Castling)
Castling is the only move that allows two pieces to move during the same turn.
During castling, a king moves two spaces towards the rook that it will castle with, and the rook jumps to the other side. king can castle to either side as long as:
- The king has not moved.
- king is not checked.
- The king does not move through or into check.
- There are no pieces between the king and castling-side rook.
- The castling-side rook has not moved.
It does not matter:
- If the king was in check, but is no longer.
- If the rook can be attacked by an opponent’s piece before castling.
STEP 9: (Special Move: En Passant)
En passant is a special movement for pawns attacking pawns. It only applies if your opponent moves a pawn two spaces, and its destination space is next to your pawn. You can take the opposing piece by moving forward diagonal to your pawn’s attacked square.
STEP 10: (Check)
A king is in check when an opponent’s piece is in a position that can attack the king. A player must move their king out of check, block the check, or capture the attacking piece.
A player cannot move their king into check.
STEP 11: (Checkmate)
Putting an opponent’s king in “checkmate” is the only way to win the game.
A king is in checkmate if it is in check, the opponent’s piece that has the king in check cannot be captured, the check cannot be blocked, and the king cannot move to a square that is not under attack.
In the illustration, the white queen has the black king in check, and all of the spaces where the king can move can be attacked by the queen. The king cannot take the queen, because the knight is protecting the queen. The black bishop cannot block the queen. This is checkmate.
STEP 12: (Stalemate)
Simply put, a “Stalemate” is a tie. It achieves if there are no legal moves for a player to make.
In this illustration, it is the white’s turn. All spaces around the king are attacking, but the king is not in check, therefore it cannot move. The only other white piece, the pawn, is blocked by the king. Because movement is impossible, the game is a stalemate.
If white has another piece somewhere on the board that was not blocked, it would have to move. The game would continue.
STEP 13: (Basic Strategy)
Chess is an incredibly complex strategic game, and it is impossible to go into all of the possible tactics one could use to win. However, I wanted to leave the new player with a few hints that will hopefully aid in the victory.
You want to protect your pieces from capture, but it helps to know which pieces are the strongest so you can decide who to save if you must choose between two. A good explanation of piece value is available on Wikipedia.
Queen: Most Value
Pawn: Least Value
The bishop and the knight are commonly considering equal on the value scale, however many feel that the bishop has a slight edge over the knight.
Pawn become more valuable as they near promotion.
Although a pawn can promote to a variety of pieces, the strongest choice is almost always to promote to a queen.
When building defenses, remember to look at the board and gauge how strong you are in certain areas of the board. Try keeping power distributed fairly evenly, and pieces over to add strength if you see an attack coming.
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END OF THE GAME
If a player’s king place in check and there is no legal move that the player can make to escape check. Then the king says to checkmate. The game ends, and that player loses. Unlike other pieces, capturing the opponent’s king not allow.
The diagram shows an example checkmate position. The white king threatens by the black queen. The square to which the king could move was also threatening. It cannot capture the queen, because it would then be in check by the rook.
Either player may resign at any time, conceding the game to the opponent. A player may resign by saying it verbally or by indicating it on the score sheet in any of three ways: (1) by writing “resigns”, (2) by circling the result of the game, or (3) by writing “1-0” if Black resigns or “0-1” if White resigns. Tipping over the king also indicates resignation, but should distinguish from accidentally knocking the king over. Stopping both clocks is not an indication of resigning since clocks can stop to call the arbiter. An offer of a handshake is sometimes used, but it could mistake for agreement to a draw.
ILLEGAL MOVE IN BLITZ:-
In Blitz chess, if a player completes an illegal move, the player’s opponent may claim a win before making a move. One way to claim this win is to take a king left in check by the opponent. Once the illegal move has answers, the move stands.
A dead position defines as a position where neither player can win the game by any sequence of legal moves.
- Any positions with the following pieces only are known as dead positions. The USCF rules speak of insufficient material for these positions:
- King against king
- The King against king and bishop
- King against king and knight
- The king and bihop against king and bishop, with both bisops on squares of the same color.
- However, insufficient material is not the only condition for a dead position. There are positions where the pieces on the board would be sufficient to mate if arranged otherwise.
The game ends in a draw if any of these conditions occur:
- The game is automatically a draw if the player to move does not check and has no legal move. This situation calls a stalemate.
- The game is immediately drawn for a dead position.
- Both players agree to a draw after one of the players makes such an offer.
- The players having the move may claim a draw by declaring that one of the following conditions exists, or by declaring an intention to make a move that will bring about one of these conditions. If the claim is proven true, the game is drawn:
- The same board position has occurred three times with the same player to move and all pieces having the same right to move, including the right to castle or capture en passant.
- There has been no capture or pawn move in the last fifty moves by each player if the last move was not a checkmate.
- The game ends immediately with a draw by the intervention of the arbiter, without a draw request necessary:
- When the same board position has occurred five times.
- When the moves without capture or pawn move extend up to seventy-five.
Gameplay under time control will end as a loss for a player who uses up all of the time allowed on the player’s clock. Which calls flag-fall unless the opponent has no possibility of affecting checkmate. There are different types of time control. A player may have a fixed amount of time for the entire game or may have to make a certain number of moves within a specified time. Also, a small increment of time may add for each move made.
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BENEFITS OF Playing Chess
- Develops the ability to think rationally
- Builds self-confidence
- Helps to treat schizophrenia
- Teaches the virtue of patience
- Promotes the growth of dendrites in the brain
- Exercises the brain
- Increases IQ levels
- Teaches sportsmanship
- Improves problem-solving skills
- Improves concentration
- Develops spatial skills
- Improves memory function
- Develops creative thinking
- Improves the ability to think under pressure
- Develops Pattern recognition skills
- Improves strategic thinking
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“I have come to the perconal conclusion that while all artists are not chess players, all chess player are artist.”– MARCEL DUCHAMP
“Chess is the struggle against the error.”– JOHANNES ZUKERTORT
“Every chess master was once a beginner.”– Irving Chernev
“Avoid the crowd. DO your own thinking independently. Be the chess player, not the chess piece.”– RALPH CHARELL
“Chess makes men wiser and clear-sighted.”– VLADIMIR PUTIN
“Chess is the gymnasium of the mind.”– BLASIE PASCAL
“Chess holds its master in its own bonds, shackling the mind and brain so that the inner freedom of the very strongest must suffer.”– ALBERT EINSTEIN
“Chess is a war over the board. The object is to crush the opponent’s mind”– BOBBY FISCHER
“Chess is life in miniature. Chess is a stuggle, chess battles.”– GARRY KASPAROV
“Chess, like love, like music, has the power to make men happy.”– SIEGBERT TARRASCH
“For in the idea of chess and the development of the chess mind we have a picture of the intellectual struggle of mankind.”– RICHARD RETI
“I don’t believe in psychology. I believe in good moves.”– BOBBY FISCHER
“It is my style to take my opponent and myself on to unknown grounds. A game of chess is not an examination of knowledge; it is a battle of nerves.”– DAVID BRONTEIN
“When you see a good move, look for a better one.”– EMANUEL LASKER
“Give me a difficult positional game, I will play it. But totally won positions, I cannot stand them.”– HEIN DONNER
“There is no remorse like the remorse of chess.”– H.G. WELLS
“Even a poor plan is better than no plan at all.”– MIKHAIL CHIGORIN
“In life, as in chess, forethought wins.”– CHARLES BUXTON
“Pawns are the soul of the game.”– FRANCOIS – ANDRE DANICAN PHILIDOR
“Pawn endings are to chess what putting is to golf.”– CECIL PURDY
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